A pan-Asian research project studying the role of industrial clusters using the “new economic geography”. Previous research and the hypothesis of this study maintained that industrial agglomerations are summarized into four categories: (1) clusters where locally specialized items are produced or local product districts; (2) clusters where a large core firm has many subcontracting or parts makers surrounding it or the so-called industrial castle town; (3) clusters in large cities where lots of basic production processes are treated or urban processing clusters; and (4) government-led industrial parks and estates often seen in developing countries.