The purpose of the study was to provide the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), the 2009 High Level Meeting (HLM) and the wider development community with a comprehensive assessment of current donor policies and practices regarding the tying of aid as well as the results of untying. Phase II of the project was intended to be an exploratory study providing evidence based conclusions about the implications of untying for aid effectiveness. The intention was to provide a benchmark against which the advantages of untying aid and further steps to promote untying could be assessed.