There is currently a global debate with the development community regarding the relative merits of project type assistance vs budget support. As part of a wider study aimed at demonstrating the importance of project type assistance in conducting ODA funded infrastructure development, Mekong Economics Ltd. was responsible for carrying out a survey designed to investigate the effectiveness of JBICs (formally OECF) assistance in the rehabilitation of National Highways 1 and 5. The effectiveness of the two projects was assessed using the five pillars of the Paris Declaration as a framework (Ownership, Alignment, Harmonisation, Managing for Development Results and Mutual Accountability). The study was created by combining the results from government and stakeholder interviews with existing data in order to provide an insight into the effectiveness of carrying out the two projects through project type assistance.